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Clinical Anatomy of the Spine, Spinal Cord, and ANS by Gregory D. Cramer, Susan A. Darby

By Gregory D. Cramer, Susan A. Darby

With its specific medical standpoint and evidence-based insurance, scientific Anatomy of the backbone, Spinal wire, and ANS is the definitive reference for employing anatomic issues to the assessment and administration of stipulations of the backbone and linked neural buildings, together with spinal impingement and subluxation. top of the range colour illustrations and images, in addition to plentiful radiographs, CT, and MRI photographs, visually display particular anatomic and neuromusculoskeletal relationships and spotlight constructions which may be suffering from handbook and surgical spinal suggestions or different diagnostic and healing techniques.

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Additional resources for Clinical Anatomy of the Spine, Spinal Cord, and ANS

Example text

The superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body are rougher inside the anular apophyses. Most vertebral bodies are concave posteriorly (in the transverse plane), where they help to form the vertebral foramina. Small foramina for arteries and veins appear on the front and sides of the vertebral bodies. , 2008). 20 A series of relatively large arteries pierce the center of the vertebral bodies along their entire circumference (Fig. 2-4). On entering a vertebral body, these large nutrient arteries form a dense plexus of arteries within the central horizontal plane of the vertebral body.

6-1). They also articulate with the ribs. The lumbar transverse processes (see Fig. 7-2) lie in front of the lumbar articular processes and posterior to the pedicles and intervertebral foramina. The transverse processes serve as muscle attachment sites and are used as lever arms by spinal muscles. The muscles that attach to the transverse processes maintain posture and induce rotation and lateral flexion of single vertebrae and the spine as a whole. Each transverse process is composed of the “true” transverse process (diapophysis) and a costal element.

The anatomy of the Z joint is discussed after the next section. Functional Components of a Typical Vertebra Each region of a typical vertebra is related to one or more of the functions of the vertebral column mentioned at the beginning of this chapter (support, protection of the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots, and movement) (Fig. 2-5). In general, the vertebral bodies help with support, whereas the pedicles and laminae protect the spinal cord. The superior and inferior articular processes help determine spinal movement by the facing of their facets.

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