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Carbon Dioxide Angiography: Principles, Techniques, and by Kyung Cho, Irvin F. Hawkins

By Kyung Cho, Irvin F. Hawkins

With an abundance of illustrations and tables to focus on severe details, this resource presents a pragmatic method of using CO2 as a distinction agent for diagnostic angiography, vascular intervention, and different interventional techniques in either adults and pediatrics. in actual fact laying-out key issues within the technological know-how, strategy, and scientific purposes of this technique, this resource could be a continuing spouse for physicians treating a number of issues affecting arterial and venous stream.

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Hallin RW. Carbodissection as an adjunct to endarterectomy. Am Surg 1967; 33:542 –545. Hanafee W, Bashore R. Carbon dioxide and horizontal fluoroscopy in intrauterine fetal transfusions. Radiology 1965; 85:481– 484. Overview of CO2 as a Contrast Agent 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 21 Kudo M, Tomita S, Tochio H, et al. Sonography with intraarterial infusion of carbon dioxide microbubbles (sonographic angiography): value in differential diagnosis of hepatic tumors. AJR 1992; 158:65– 74. Mladinich CRJ, Akins EW, Hawkins IF Jr.

EFFECTS OF CO2 ON THE CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION Although CO2 was used as an intravenous contrast agent as early as the 1950s for the diagnosis of pericardial effusion (7 – 9), little is known about the effects of bolus central venous injections of the gas on the hemodynamic and ventilatory functions. We, therefore, evaluated the effects of single intracaval injections of increasing amounts of CO2 on the hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters in order to determine the safety and tolerance of the gas, and the adequacy of the routine monitors used during the use of CO2 as a venous contrast agent.

Comparison between CO2 and iodinated contrast media is summarized in Table 1. RADIOPACITY OF CO2 Contrast materials in current use for angiography absorb X-rays to a greater or lesser degree than the surrounding tissues. Depending on density and atomic weight of the material, contrast materials can be categorized into positive or negative contrast media. CO2 is a negative contrast agent, whereas iodinated contrast medium is a positive contrast. The radiopacity of contrast materials increases with the increase of its atomic 23 24 Table 1 Cho et al.

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