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Breaking Ocean Waves: Geometry, Structure and Remote Sensing by Eugene A. Sharkov

By Eugene A. Sharkov

This ebook represents the main accomplished description of the actual findings of an research into the spatio-temporal features of the gravity of breaking waves and the froth job in open sea through tools and tools of optical and microwave distant sensing.

The research of actual and electrodynamics' houses of the gravity wave breaking approaches and the froth spatio-temporal job is a crucial side of satellite tv for pc oceanography, ocean engineering, air-sea interplay and ocean distant sensing. specifically, the contribution of froth formations of assorted forms to the suggest and the spatio-temporal adaptations of radio emission, back-scattering, IR and optical parameters of the disturbed sea floor is extremely major. The statistical features of wave breaking and attendant foam forming are vitally important to ocean wave dynamics. The learn and dimension of spatio-temporal features of wave breaking and sea foam formations are of basic value in ocean distant sensing.

Much emphasis is put on the actual points of breaking methods essential to degree the probabilities and boundaries of distant sensing tools in particular commentary circumstances of an oceanic floor. a number of functional purposes and illustrations are supplied from air-borne, ship-borne and laboratory updated experiments.

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Additional info for Breaking Ocean Waves: Geometry, Structure and Remote Sensing (Springer Praxis Books / Geophysical Sciences)

Example text

Analysis of these data allows us to draw a conclusion as to the high degree of homogeneity of speci®c density of breaking centers over various azimuths: deviations from the equiprobable law of physical space ®lling with breaking centers are insigni®cant in all 12 azimuth directions investigated. 20). The hypothesis on the linear character of the distribution function can be accepted and, consequently, the conclusion can be drawn about the constant value of the probability density of speci®c ®lling the sea surface with breaking centers over a space of separately considered sectors (azimuth directions).

This dependence, obtained by Grushin et al. (1990), is well approxi~ À0:33 , which is well known from the data of mated by the exponential dependence  some experiments (Carter, 1982). In the given case the numerical coecient is about 40% higher than that accepted in early approximations. Of interest is the fact that under full fetch conditions (X ˆ 250 km) the f~m value almost precisely corresponds to the dimensionless frequency value obtained from the Pirson±Moskowitz spectrum of a developed sea state ( f~m ˆ 0:13) (Pierson and Moskowitz, 1964).

05 to 20 s. 5 cm. Processing of a wind wave time series for the purpose of obtaining sea wave spectra was performed by the computer. † are, respectively, the estimate and the true power spectrum of sea waves; and ! is the circular frequency of gravity waves. …k†=@k 2 kˆ! …k† ˆ …gk† 1=2 ; and k is the wave number magnitude. 3). 3 The strati®cation state and the turbulent mode of a near-surface layer. 1) it can easily be seen that the size of the experimental range (200±250 km) is essentially smaller than the characteristic scales for the spatial variability of synoptic processes (2000 km).

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