By Jane L. Collins, Victoria Mayer
Either palms Tied reviews the operating terrible within the usa, focusing particularly at the relation among welfare and low-wage gains between operating moms. Grounded within the event of thirty-three ladies dwelling in Milwaukee and Racine, Wisconsin, it tells the tale in their fight to stability baby care and wage-earning in poorly paying and infrequently state-funded jobs with rigid schedules—and the moments while those jobs failed them they usually grew to become to the kingdom for added relief. Jane L. Collins and Victoria Mayer the following research the events of those girls in mild of the 1996 nationwide own accountability and paintings chance Reconciliation Act and different like-minded reforms—laws that ended the entitlement to welfare for these in want and supplied an incentive for them to come to paintings. Arguing that this reform got here at a time of gendered swap within the hard work strength and profound shifts within the obligations of relatives, corporations, and the nation, either palms Tied presents a stark yet poignant portrait of ways welfare reform troubled negative, single-parent households, eventually eroding the members’ fiscal rights and affecting their skill to take care of themselves and their kids.
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Additional resources for Both Hands Tied: Welfare Reform and the Race to the Bottom in the Low-Wage Labor Market
The racist practices ofâ†œlocal real estate dealers and the surge ofâ†œ local neighborhood associations around the city with restrictive coveÂ� W e l fa r e R e f o r m ’ s C o n t e x t â•… 33 nants made relocation a nearly impossible task. 24 Still, the neighborhood struggled on, until another symbol ofâ†œ post-war progress—the interstate highway— dealt it a mortal blow. . Despite public complaints . . that freeway construction was progressing without any plan for the displaced, ground was broken in 1952 for the construction ofâ†œMilwaukee’s segments ofâ†œthe interstate freeway system.
16 While the racism ofâ†œmany industrialists and labor unions barred blacks from the “escalator ride to the middle class,” most ofâ†œthose who arrived and gained a foothold in industry were able to move out ofâ†œ poverty and to grasp at least the lower rungs ofâ†œworking-class life. 17 Local historians suggest that the “late migration” ofâ†œ black workers to Milwaukee and Racine meant that they had to bridge a formidable cultural chasm in moving from agricultural labor to factory work. 19 Their late labor market entry meant that few black workers had the chance to build significant seniority.
Because black men had not attained significant seniority, their job loss in the 1970s and 1980s was devastating—twice as severe as that experienced by the nation as a whole during the Depression. S. cities. . S. national figure. . By 2000 . . 41 W e l fa r e R e f o r m ’ s C o n t e x t â•… 37 While chronicling manufacturing decline and its e∏ects on workers, these media reports spent little time exploring a contemporaneous pattern ofâ†œ service sector growth, tied to a reconfiguration ofâ†œ the norms ofâ†œ social reproduction.