By Adrian E. Gill
During this paintings, Dr. Gill appears on the research of oceanic and atmospheric circulations. He explains how atmospheric and oceanic circulations are eventually pushed through solar power, and covers the research of saw distributions of actual amounts, together with temperature.
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If melted, this would occupy 76 m. The water in lakes and rivers would occupy 4 m, whereas that in the ground (mostly very deep) would occupy about 19 m. Of the water in solid form, that in the ice sheet can only exchange heat very slowly with the atmosphere because of the poor conductivity of ice and the thickness of the 60 40 0 40 30 60 Fig. 6. 30 in0 izo 90 60 30 A map showing the annual rainfall over the ocean. ICourtesy of C. 6 33 The Heat Balance of the Ocean ice sheet. Thus particles in the ice sheet have residence times of order lo5 years.
3. Third, cooling takes place upon evaporation because of the latent heat required. This heat is released back into the atmosphere 12 1 How the Ocean-Atmosphere System Is Driven when condensation takes place in clouds. The heat transferred by this means is, on average, about 75% of the convective transport (see Fig. 6). The release of latent heat in clouds also affects the conditions under which convection can take place. The amount of water vapor a parcel of air rising adiabatically can hold decreases with height.
The formulas used for calculating fluxes are nonlinear, and it is often useful to replace them with linearized versions, which assume that deviations from some prescribed state are not too large. Haney (1971) has already used the idea for changes in sea-air temperature difference, but it can be extended to cloudiness n, and relative humidity r as well. 75. 1 shows values of these derivatives for different latitude ranges calculated from the formulas used by Haney (1971). 8%. 7 Surface Density Changes and the Thermohaline Circulation of the Ocean The radiative heating of the atmosphere causes motion because it leads to density differences.