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Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental by Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier

By Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier

Published by way of the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Coastal and Estuarine experiences, quantity 49.

The Arctic Ocean is the least understood ocean in the world, and but its significance to the world's oceans and weather is enormous. for instance, it's been steered that the Arctic is the sector probably to be laid low with elevated atmospheric temperatures which would take place due to anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. It additionally performs a serious position in international oceanic move, in that it modulates the formation of deep water within the North Atlantic through ice export. regardless of its pivotal position in worldwide procedures, the Arctic continues to be poorly understood. This quantity is an try and spotlight and synthesize the various contemporary advances in our wisdom of Arctic oceanography and comprises subject matters that may curiosity actual, organic, chemical, and geological oceanographers in addition to atmospheric scientists.

That the Arctic is so poorly identified relative to different oceans isn't a surprise. it really is mostly ice-covered all year long, with just some of its continental cabinets changing into ice?]free in summer season. Its ice is usually multi?]year and extremely thick, making penetration into the deeper parts very unlikely other than through the main strong ice?]breakers. besides the fact that, lately new applied sciences were utilized to the Arctic, and our figuring out of the actual, chemical, organic and geological approaches which happen inside it's swiftly expanding. satellite tv for pc sensors discover the Arctic constantly, permitting us to persist with ice flow, storms, and openings within the pack ice that had by no means been saw formerly. Moorings, ships and buoys now can face up to a few of the rigors of the Arctic, and observations of the water column and seabed have gotten extra universal. eventually, as a result of its significance to worldwide procedures, reports of the Arctic are attracting scientists not just from Arctic countries yet from international locations worldwide. Arctic oceanography actually has develop into a world effort.

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Extra resources for Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental Shelves

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To extract pigmentconcentrations fromoceancolordata,thetotalradiance, Lt(•,),isdecomposed into its components. The contributionfrom atmosphericscattering,which is responsible for about80-90% of the satellite-received radiance,is quantifiedusinga radiativetransferalgorithmdeveloped by Gordonet at. The multipleRayleighscattering correctiondevelopedby Gordonet at. The near-surfacepigmentconcentrations were then computedfrom correctedwater-leavingradiancesby a second,bio-opticatalgorithmdeveloped by Gordonet at.

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