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A Race Against Time:the Challenge of Cardiovascular Disease by Stephen Leeder, Susan Raymond, Henry Greenberg, Hui Liu,

By Stephen Leeder, Susan Raymond, Henry Greenberg, Hui Liu, Kathy Esson

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And by 30% in Portugal. For Brazil the figure is 64%, for China 57%, and for India, an incredible 95%. S. and comparable with Portugal. Only in Russia does the number of years lost lag, largely because death rates are already at such high levels and the size of the population at risk is falling. It is instructive to disaggregate these PPYLL figures into decades for the age group 35-64 to see in which decades the changes in years of productive life lost are most significant. Table 7 provides these data.

Calculated the various causes of life lost in China. They estimated that CVD accounted for 9 million PPYLL a year in China in 1998 and 1999. 7 million years in 2000), perhaps for reasons to do with mortality estimates. The Johns Hopkins group assumed productive years to be from 15-64, whereas we used 35-64 and their calculations included estimates of the consequence of morbidity whereas ours did not. For comparison, Zhou et al. 6 million years), followed by CVD, cancer, respiratory disorders, and infections.

10 billion in India. 25 billion for India. These costs include those due to cancer. 1% for India in 1995. What of the impact of CVD on payrolls? Disaggregated data on CVD are available for India. It is possible to estimate costs from these data using several assumptions. For India, we assumed that two-thirds of CVD deaths are in urban areas, and used labor force participation rates by age and gender, and by urban and rural residence, to determine the distribution of deaths among working-age cohorts.

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