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2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: by Neal H. Atebara, MD

By Neal H. Atebara, MD

Discusses present purposes of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. offers optics of the human eye; uncomplicated thoughts of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and speak to lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, type of visible functionality deficits, sufferer overview and occasional imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.

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Extra resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)

Example text

The Nd:YAG Laser in Ophthalmology: Princ iples and Clinical Applications of Phot odisruption. Philadelphia. Saunders; 1985. Redrawn bv C. H. ) all di rections, and only a small fraction of the energy is normally released as coherent stimulated emission. The laser environment, however, am plifies only the stimulated emission. As indicated in Figure l - lSC, stimulated emission occurs when an incident photon of the proper frequency interacts with an atom in the upper energy state. The result is the emission of a photon of the same wavelength and the return of the atom to its lower energy state.

Th is is unfortunate because "power" has several differen t meanings, and confusion often ar ises. Other uses of the word include refracting power, resolving power, prism power, and light-gathering power. Generally, the multiplication sign, x, is used to indicate magnification. The transverse magnification of microscope objectives. for example, is sometimes expressed by this convention. Most optical systems have a pair of nodal points (Fig 2-8). Occasionally, the nodal points overlap, appearing as a Single point, but techn ically they remai n a pair of overlapping nodal points.

In this situation, the transmitted ray bends away from the surface normal, and thus the angle of transmission exceeds the angle of incidence. As the angle of incidence increases, the angle of transmission increases to a greater degree. Eventually, the angle of transmissio n equals 90°. At this point, the ray grazes along the optical interface and is no longer transm itted (Fig 2-24B). The critical angle is the angle of incidence that produces a transmitted ray 90° to the surface normal. 000) Suriace normal 8; A Figure 2-24 A, When light travel s from a high-index medium to a low-index medium, it bends away from the surface normal.

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